Paddock Farm 1850-51 

Mr Turner's Farm 1850-51

After James Turner (1805-1850) died, meticulous accounts were kept by his son, also called James (1834-1889) whilst his father's estate was being settled. This gives us an interesting picture of Paddock Farm, Mulbarton, in the financial year 1850-51.



Mr. Turner employed a number of men and boys on a regular basis, with some extra men and a number of women on a casual basis. There were also women employed in the house. Wages for a typical full week are as follows:

    John Baldwin 6 days labour 8/- (8 shillings)
    Charles Wiseman  6 days labour 8/- (8 shillings)
    Edward Kedge 6 days labour 8/- (8 shillings)
    R Tirrell  6 days labour 8/- (8 shillings)
    W Leach 6 days labour 8/- (8 shillings)
    James Caisey 6 days labour 8/- (8 shillings)
    James Sleight 6 days labour 8/- (8 shillings)
    Robert Huggins 6 days labour 7/6 (7 shillings & 6 pence)
    James Williams 6 days labour 3/- (3 shillings) (also called 'boy James')
    Andrew Spratt 6 days labour 2/6 (2 shillings & 6 pence) ('boy Spratt')

In the autumn, other lads are taken on:
    Boy Larter 6 days labour 3/- (3 shillings)
    Boy Emms 6 days labour 3/6 (3 shillings & 6 pence)
    Boy Stackyard 3½ days work 1/9 (1 shilling & 9 pence)

Work includes turnip hoeing, work in the garden, planting,

At harvest, when they are working much longer hours, all the men receive £1 and the boys receive double wages at the start of the harvest. At the end of the harvest they receive the balance due to them. On Sept. 6th 1850 this was £2.17s.0d per man and small amounts extra for the boys.

Any expenses incurred by the men for a special job they are asked to do are refunded.

Women earned less for farm work:
    Woman Albro' for 3¼ days threshing 2/6d
    Mrs. Bailey for 4 days in barn 3/-
    Mrs. Kedge for 3 days in barn 1/9
    Woman Kedge harvest wages 2/-

The Kedge children were paid 6d (sixpence) for 'dropping beans'

In October 1850, women working in the house were paid:
    Hannah Cook £1. 16s. 8d (not told how long for)
    Susan Minns £1. 15s. 4d

Other expenses

People seem to be paid for skilled work as needed:
    April Mrs. Blake, dressmaking 9/6d
    April Carman, drilling 11+ acres barley 11/6d
    July C. Wiseman, mowing hay 18/4d
    Aug. Rice, thatching 3 hay stacks £1
    Aug. Casey, 4 days harvest work 12 shillings
    Sept. Casey, 5 days harvest work 15 shillings
(presumably extra labour to help the regular workers)
    Sept. John Rice, Thatching bill £4
    Nov. Carpenter, 8 days work 16 shillings
    Nov. Mr. Rice, Blacksmith £5. 5s. 10d (accumulated bill)
    Jan. Bricklayers bill £2.  9 shillings
    Dye, rubbish collecting 2 shillings

Household expenses include: 
    Grocery bills from Mrs. Todd - around 10 shillings a month

Occasional food bills:
    R Blake, butcher's bill (e.g. £4 in July)
    Girling, pork butcher, for pork and sausages and suet (e.g. 6/8d in Sept)
    Fish at Norwich, 5/- (occasional)
    Coal during winter (10 shillings for half a ton)

Medical bills: Mrs. Fillbank, the Nurse 3 weeks £1. 5shillings
                       Doctor's bills (from Norwich) 7/6d a time

Other personal expenses:
    Sept. Bill for tobacco 1 shilling
    Wright, shoemakers £1. 5s. 6d
    Mercury Office Papers £1. 1s. 0d (= 1 guinea)
    Jarrolds, booksellers, £1. 13s. 0d
(but most of these will come under the entry 'small cash items' for most months)

Farm expenses include bills for seeds; repairs; milling wheat; mending sparrow nets (2 shillings); 'muck' (10 loads = £2. 10 shillings); a cockerel (2 shillings); collar for pony (1/6d)
    3 Saturdays market expenses 15 shillings
    6th July Beer for hay makers 2 shillings
    30th July 5 score (= 100) sheep 12/6d (lambs to fatten up)

Then there were the occasional special purchases at auctions. In October 1850, Mr. Turner bought a lot of items at such a sale:
    Water trough 8/6d
    Gang harrow £3
    Gig (a light carriage) £5. 15shillings 
    Harness £2. 4 shillings
    Horse £21
And at another sale he bought a looking glass (9 shillings) and a watch (5 shillings)

Taxes are major outgoings:
    Half-year taxes: £3. 12s. 2d
    Half-year land tax: £8. 9s. 0d
    Quarterly poor rate: £8. 1s. 4d
    And a further (anon.) tax of £2. 15s. 0d


Items sold off the farm
Butter and eggs (to Mr. Girling and to Mrs. Todd)
Wheat sold to Mr. Cremer at Mulbarton mill, for flour (e.g. 80cwt. for £74; and a similar amount a few weeks later)
Corn sold to Mr. Cremer (miller)
Oats sold to Mr. Todd (at World's End - where horses were stabled)
Hay to Mr. Cremer
Straw to Mr. Cremer
Turnip seed (unspecified amount for £3. 15 shillings)
Pigs, to Charles Wiseman or R. Girling - e.g. 6 pigs for £14. 9s. 6d; 1 fat pig for £2.10
Sheep, to Mr. Girling - e.g. 1 sheep £1. 15s. 6d
1 calf to Mr. Girling for 10 shillings
'Beasts' (cattle) - e.g. 8 sold at £17 each.
(In July 1851, he sold 4 shorthorn bullocks at Smithfield Market, London for £68, and the following week another four for £64)
1 pony sold for £12
Horse hide to Mr. Cunningham (for 5 shillings)
Cow hide to Mr. Turner for 5/6d
Faggots, wood, parsnips to his own workers for small amounts

Rents and tithes
These form a major part of his income - some are rented to his own workers. The annual rent is due at Michaelmas (end of September)
D. Spurgeon £6 rent; 2/6d 'tythe'
Robert Girling £21 rent;
James Sleight £4. 15 shillings rent; 1/6d tythe (compare this with his wages, 8 shillings a week, given above)
Ben Chapman £5 rent; 1/6d tythe
There also seem to be regular payments from a couple of people.

(N.B. names of tradespeople can be checked against White's Directory, 1845)